Job analysis is a process for collecting and analyzing information about a job. It is A process we use to identify tasks of a job and the knowledge, skills, and abilities (can use experience) a person needs to perform the job.
– A task is a piece of work to be done or undertaken. For example, a management job has two tasks, first task is “Contract management”, second task is “Monitoring operating costs”.
– When we talk about abilities a person needs to perform a particular job, we break it down into 3 categories, knowledge, skills, and abilities. For example, if a person needs the management job above, he must have abilities below.
+ Knowledge (we may use education instead): University graduate.
+ Experience (in this case, we use experience instead of ability): At least 3-year experience in logistics.
+ Skills: Excellent Excel skills, Good problem-solving skills, Work well independently and in a team.
From job analysis, we create job description, and job description. Job description is A list of a job’s duties. Job specification is A list of requirements (education, skills, ability) a person needs to perform a particular job.
Conduct Job analysis
We may conduct Job Analysis with the process below.
– Step 1, Identification of Job Analysis Purpose. At this step, we determine needs and desired outputs. Probably, we do it because we need job description and job specification.
– Step 2, Job Analysis Plan. At this step, we decide who will conduct it, job analysis methods. From this step, we also prepare documents, questionnaires, etc.
– Step 3, Data Collection. At this step, we collect job-related data. We need to collect information about ability needs and job content.
– Step 4, Data Analysis. At this step, we analyze data from the previous step.
– Step 5, Developing Job Description and Job Specification. At this step, we develop Job Description and Job Specification.
Application of job analysis:
When we know the nature of the job, we can select appropriate candidates for that job, assess worker contribution, develop training programs, and so on.
Recruitment and selection
With job description, you will know what you are looking for. You know the job responsibilities as well as the skills and other characteristics required of candidates. A part of the job description is presented in the job advert, so candidates will know about the job which they are applying.
In the selection process, we need to know the knowledge, skills, and abilities that are required to each job.
The job description provides the job responsibilities as well as the skills and other characteristics required of workers. We design the training program based on the job description, because the training program must provide the necessary competencies.
Job description tells us about job’ contents. We should assess workers based on job’ contents.
(to be continued)